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Китаянка на работе рассказала об интересном явлении, которое, оказывается, усиленно обсуждается в местной китайской диаспоре.

Среди иммигрантов первого поколения и из Индии, и из Китая много инженеров, программистов, научных работников и проч. Но вот среди основателей американских стартапов, CEO компаний и прочего начальства индийцы представлены гораздо больше, а китайцев маловато — да и те скорее тайваньцы, чем иммигранты из материкового Китая. В самом же Китае полно собственных предпринимателей — в отличие, повторюсь, от диаспоры.

По ее словам, одно из объяснений такое. Научно-технический персонал в Китае с детства воспитывают быть в подчинении у начальства, которое по определению партийное. Как государственный чиновник, так и хозяин компании — обязательно члены партийной элиты (либо непосредственно, либо, как часто бывает среди китайских капиталистов, ближайшие родственники высокопоставленных членов партии). Но партийное начальство не может эмигрировать; более того, эмиграция родственников первой степени (дети, братья, сестры, родители и т.д.) обычно приводит к потере места чиновника. Таким образом в США оказываются в основном те китайцы, которых приучили хорошо работать и подчиняться, но не те, которых воспитывали приказывать. Selection bias.

Интересное окошко в китайскую жизнь, если это действительно так.

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May. 28th, 2018 05:16 pm (UTC)
>Особенности китайского капитализма.

Should the U.S. Worry That China Is Closing In on Its Lead in Research and Development?

Add this to the list of metrics by which Beijing is catching up to Washington. Since the turn of the millennium, China’s investment in research and development has climbed from 5.7% of American levels to over 81%. In 2015, China spent $377 billion on research and development, compared with $463 billion in the U.S.

Why China Is Emerging as a Tech Superpower to Rival the U.S.

Until only a few years ago, talk of China as an innovator would have elicited scorn from most Western business and government leaders. The country was widely derided as a haven for copycats and pirates, or grudgingly acknowledged as an efficient manufacturing platform whose factories depended on the uneasy union of cheap Chinese labor and foreign technology.

Business in China today, however, is being led by innovation-obsessed execs like Ren Zhengfei, founder of Huawei Technologies, which last year filed more patent applications than any other company in the world. And Allen Zhang, who led the team that developed Tencent’s WeChat, the smartphone app that allows its 900 million users to chat, shop, pay, play, and do just about anything else. And Robin Li, CEO of Baidu, the Beijing-based search company, who has vowed to have autonomous vehicles ready for sale in China by next year.

China has spawned a new generation of homegrown entrepreneurs who are creating world-class products, developing their own technologies, and rolling out new business models on a scale and with a speed the global economy has never seen. “The copycat era is behind us,” says Kai-Fu Lee, CEO of Sinovation Ventures and the former head of Google China. “We are way beyond that.

Consider that between 2014 and 2016, China attracted $77 billion in venture capital investment, compared with just $12 billion in the preceding two years. China is now among the world’s top three markets globally for venture capital in digital technologies including virtual reality, autonomous vehicles, 3D printing, drones, and artificial intelligence. And about a third of the world’s 262 “unicorns” (startups valued at more than a billion dollars) hail from China, according to McKinsey & Co., and account for 43% of the global value of such companies.

И наконец Трампик(куда ж без него):

Knowledge :
Why the U.S.-China ‘Trade War’ Is Really About the Future of Innovation.
Geoffrey Garrett, Dean at The Wharton School:

What is really going on is not about trade; it is about who will lead global innovation in the 21st century.

This is what the Trump administration is really worried about. Dig just below the surface of “trade war” tweets, and the administration’s focus on China and the future of innovation is apparent.
The U.S. Trade Representative report on which the new tariffs are based is entitled, “China’s acts, policies, and practices related to technology transfer, intellectual property, and innovation.” Nothing about steel or manufacturing jobs.

Ему вторит REUTERS:
Trade war or not, China is closing the gap on U.S. in technology IP race.

HONG KONG (Reuters) - China’s rising investment in research and expansion of its higher education system mean that it is fast closing the gap with the United States in intellectual property and the struggle to be the No.1 global technology power, according to patent experts.

While U.S. President Donald Trump’s threat of punitive tariffs on high-tech U.S. exports could slow Beijing’s momentum, it won’t turn back the tide

Last year, China overtook Japan as the No. 2 patent filer in the world, with 13.4 percent annual growth, according to the World Intellectual Property Organisation. If maintained, the pace will take it above the United States in just over a year, a strong indication of its ambitions.



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